Iquitos is the largest city in the Peruvian rainforest and the fifth-largest city of Peru. It is also the capital city of the Loreto Region and Maynas Province. Located in the Amazon Basin, the city is along the Amazon, Nanay and Itaya rivers. Its name in Iquito language translates to the people. The city proper with its four districts has a population of 422,055; 462,783 live within the Iquitos Metropolitan Area, making it in the sixth-largest metropolitan area of the country. The official city nickname is Capital of the Peruvian Amazon.
During the early 20th-century rubber boom, it attracted many European immigrants; they contributed to a period of wealth and great social and commercial development that resulted in its unique urban and cultural identity. The city originally was developed from an Indian Reduction developed by Jesuit missionaries along the Nanay river circa 1757 with the name San Pablo de Napeanos. The town was inhabited by the Napeanos and Iquito people. At the present time, the city has became a destination in the Peruvian Amazon, due to historic architecture, cuisine, landscapes, accent, nightlife and diverse cultural movement. It is a cosmopolitan city with strong Amazonia roots.
Downtown Iquitos is considered the starting point for the city tour. The Belén Market is described as the largest traditional market in the Peruvian Amazon. Several neighborhoods and landmarks of Iquitos are prized for their Amazonian, European, and bohemian atmosphere. Over 250,000 visitors came to Iquitos in 2012, a number that is expected to rise since the ranking of the Amazon River as one of the Seven Natural Wonders of the World. In 2012 Iquitos inaugurated international flights with the major hub in Panama City, with shared destination to Miami and Cancun. The city was included, as number 6, on the list of "top 10 cities for 2011" by Lonely Planet.
The city can be reached only by airplane or boat, with the exception of a road to Nauta, a small town roughly 100 km (62 mi) south. It is the largest city in the world that is inaccessible by road. Ocean vessels of 3,000 to 9,000 tons and 5.5 metres (18 ft) draft can reach Iquitos from the Atlantic Ocean, 3600 km away. Most people travel within the city via bus, motorcycle, or the ubiquitous auto rickshaw (mototaxi, motocarro or motocar). It is a modified motorcycle with a cabin behind supported by two wheels, seating three. Transportation to nearby towns often requires a river trip via pequepeque, a small public motorized boat.
Pacaya–Samiria National Reserve is one of the largest protected areas in Peru with an area of more than 20,000 km², containing a rich eco diversity and being the largest reserve in the country and the second largest in the Amazon region. The reserve is triangular shaped by Marañón and Ucayali River in the South, just before their junction originating the Amazon River. Its main purpose is to preserve the ecosystems of the Omagua Region and to promote the sustainable development of the local towns (Source: Wikipedia).